All of the works above were taken with a pinhole camera which is basically any piece of photography equipment that has a lightproof box with a tiny hole on the front side that allows light through, the light striking film secured at the rear of the box. None use a lens of any kind. Some are made from as simple an object as an oatmeal carton.
It always amazes me to see the rich beauty of these photographs. Leaving the thousand dollar, super sharply focused camera at home can sometimes improve your art dramatically.